Cotton Cultivation

Cotton is primarily grown in dry tropical and subtropical climates at temperatures between 11°C and 25°C. It is a warm climate crop threatened by heath or freezing temperatures (below 5°C or above 25°C), although its resistance varies from species to species. Seedling emergence can occur between one week and a month after planting.
During this phase (germination, emergence and seedling growth), the plant needs warm temperature and much moisture (7,000 to 9,000 m3 by hectare), which can be supplied by nature or by means of irrigation. Cotton leaves are about 12-15 cm in length and width. They develop along the main stem in a spiral arrangement.

cotton cultivation | cotton agriculture

Each new leaf commonly develops 5 to 8 cm above the preceding leaf. Blooming will continue regularly for several weeks, even months, as long as growing conditions are suitable. After flowering, the inner part of the bloom gradually develops into a fruit (called “cotton boll”). Cotton bolls keep growing until full size (approximately 2 to 3 cm width). It will take about two months between the blooming of the flower and the first opening of the bolls. Cotton bolls burst open upon maturity, revealing soft masses of fibres. Cotton harvesting is then possible.

The most commonly cultivated species of cotton in the world include Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense (also referred to as “New World” species). Gossypium hirsutum originated in Mexico. It is the most important agricultural cotton, accounting for more than 90% of world fibre production. Gossypium barbadense, of Peruvian origin, accounts for about 5% of world fibre. It includes cotton fibres of the highest quality, such as the Jumel variety (from the Barbados), among the finest cotton in terms of quality and fibre length. Two additional cultivated species are Gossypium arboreum (which originated in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent) and Gossypium herbaceum (from southern Africa), which are also called “Old World” or “Asiatic cottons”.

Cotton Sowing Season

Cotton is Karif crop. Cotton is generally sown during April-May month in northern India. It take 6-8 month for cotton to get mature for harvesting.

Best Soil for Cotton Cultivation

Black soil is preferred for cotton cultivation but it can also grow alluvial soil. Cotton roots get damaged in water logging so well drained soil is preferred.

How Cotton is Grown and Cultivated

Cotton is Karif crop. Cotton is generally sown during April-May month in northern India. Once the cotton is sown it needs 700-1200 mm. The water irrigation need is maximum during flowering and boll growth. Weed control is important for cotton crop. Weed complete with cotton crop for nutrients, light and moisture with reduces the proper growth of cotton crop. Hence it is required to regularly remove the weeds from cotton fields.
Once the cotton bolls burst open after maturity, the cotton crop is ready for harvesting. Cotton picker machine is used for large scale cotton boll harvesting. Small scale farmers also use manual plucking of cotton bolls by hands. Then cotton is send for ginning. Ginning is the process to remove cotton seeds from cotton bolls. Cotton is then packed in bales and stored.

Cotton Cultivation in India

India is one of the largest cotton producing country in world. Cotton is important raw material for textile industry in India. Gujrat, Maharashtra, Punjab are major cotton growing states in India. Cotton major cash and fibre crop in India.

There are certain for high cotton cultivation in India:
1. India fertile land near Ganga river basin.
2. Cheap manual labor which can be used for cotton cultivation.
3. Huge consumption of raw cotton by domestic cotton industries.
4. India climatic conditions are suitable for agriculture of cotton.
5. Availability of suitable seeds and fertilizers in India.

Cotton Cultivation in Egypt

Egyptian cotton is famous over the world for its quality. Fibre length of Egyptian cotton is extra long and it is stronger. Egyptian cotton can be spun into thinner yarn and can be made to make light weight and smooth fabric. valley and deltas near Nile river are suitable for cotton cultivation.

Frequently Asked Question about Cotton Cultivation: FAQs

What conditions are best for cultivation of cotton ?

Cotton requires at least 15oC for seed germination and it 21-27oC temperature is good for vegetative growth of cotton. Cotton is can tolerate heat conditions, it survive up to 43oC heat. Also the temperature below 21oC is not good for growth of cotton.
700-1200 mm rain is sufficient for cotton cultivation.

How long does cotton take to grow ? (Duration of Cotton Crop)

Cotton requires about 6 to 8 months to get mature and ready for harvesting.

How is cotton grown and Cultivated ?

Cotton is kharif crop which is sown in preferably black well drained soil. Given proper irrigation and weed control, it gets matured in 6-8 months. Once the cotton boll burst, it gets ready for harvesting.

Where does cotton plant grows in India ?

There are major cotton growing zones in India:
1. North Zone : Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan.
2. Central Zone : Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat.
3. South Zone : Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamilnadu.