GATE (TF) Textile 2009 Question Paper Solution | GATE/2009/TF/34

Question 34 (Textile Engineering & Fibre Science)

Consider the following elements in Group I and Group II and choose the correct alternative from amongst A, B, C, and D.

Group IGroup II
PWrap spinning1Core sheath structure, high production rate
QAir-jet spinning2Wrapper fibre belts and commonly used for denim
RFriction spinning3Mostly used for man-made fibres, stiffer yarns
SRotor spinning4Composite yarn, low production rate
5Versatile in range of fibres and yarn counts
(A)P-4, Q-3, R-1, S-2
(B)P-1, Q-5, R-2, S-4
(C)P-3, Q-2, R-4, S-5
(D)P-2, Q-1, R-5, S-3
[Show Answer]

Option A is correct.

Frequently Asked Questions | FAQs

What is wrap spinning?

Wrap spinning, also known as wrap spinning or wrap yarn spinning, is a specialized spinning technique used to produce wrapped yarns. Unlike traditional spinning methods where fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, wrap spinning involves wrapping fibers around a core yarn or filament to create a unique structure.

In wrap spinning, a core yarn or filament is used as the central element, and additional fibers are wrapped around it in a spiral or helical fashion. These wrapping fibers can be of a different material or color from the core yarn, providing decorative or functional properties to the resulting wrapped yarn.

The wrap spinning process typically involves the following steps:
Core yarn preparation: A continuous core yarn or filament is prepared, which serves as the central structure for the wrapped yarn. The core yarn can be made of natural fibers, synthetic fibers, or a blend of both.

Fiber wrapping: Additional fibers, known as wrap fibers, are introduced to the spinning process. These fibers are typically finer or more delicate than the core yarn. The wrap fibers are fed onto the core yarn and wrapped around it using specialized spinning techniques.

Tension control: During the wrapping process, tension is carefully controlled to ensure proper fiber alignment and wrapping consistency. This helps achieve an even and uniform appearance of the wrapped yarn.

Twist application: In some wrap spinning techniques, a slight twist may be applied to the core yarn and the wrapped fibers. This twist helps stabilize the wrapped structure and enhances the yarn’s strength and durability.

Wrap spinning allows for the creation of yarns with unique visual and tactile effects. The wrapped fibers can create various patterns, textures, and color effects, providing decorative or functional elements to the yarn. The different fiber types used for wrapping can introduce contrasting colors, sheen, or other visual characteristics to the yarn.

Wrapped yarns find applications in various textile products, including apparel, home textiles, upholstery, and accessories. They are often used for decorative trims, borders, embellishments, and surface effects in fabrics.

Overall, wrap spinning offers a versatile approach to yarn production, enabling the creation of visually appealing and distinctive yarns with enhanced texture and aesthetics.

What is the principle of air jet spinning?

The principle of air jet spinning involves the use of high-velocity air jets to insert twist into the fibers and create a yarn. It is a spinning technique that is used to produce yarns with certain advantages, such as high production speed and the ability to work with a wide range of fibers.
The basic principle of air jet spinning can be summarized in the following steps:
Fiber preparation: The fibers are prepared by opening, cleaning, and blending them to achieve the desired characteristics for the final yarn.
Fiber delivery: The prepared fibers are fed into the air jet spinning machine, typically through a feed system such as a chute or a feed roller.
Fiber drafting: The fibers are then drafted to reduce their thickness and align them in a parallel arrangement. This is usually done using a drafting system consisting of pairs of rollers.

Fiber insertion: High-velocity air jets are employed to insert twist into the drafted fibers. The air jets are strategically positioned in the spinning machine to direct the fibers towards the center of the yarn.

Twist formation: As the high-velocity air jets guide the fibers towards the center, they create a vortex-like motion that imparts twist to the fibers. The twist is generated by the air turbulence and the differential speeds between the fibers and the air jet.
Yarn formation: The twisted fibers are collected and wound onto a bobbin or package to form the final yarn. Additional processes, such as winding and yarn tension control, may be incorporated to ensure the yarn’s quality and uniformity.

The key principle behind air jet spinning is the utilization of air turbulence to insert twist into the fibers, eliminating the need for mechanical contact or frictional forces. This allows for high production speeds, reduced fiber damage, and the ability to work with various fiber types, including natural and synthetic fibers.

Air jet spinning offers advantages such as high productivity, improved fiber utilization, and the ability to produce yarns with desired properties, such as strength, evenness, and elongation. However, it may have limitations in terms of yarn quality, particularly in terms of yarn hairiness and certain physical properties compared to other spinning methods like ring spinning.

Overall, the principle of air jet spinning involves the controlled use of air jets to insert twist into fibers and create yarns efficiently. This spinning technique has found applications in a wide range of industries, including apparel, home textiles, and technical textiles.

What is the process of Friction spinning?

Friction spinning, also known as rotor spinning or open-end spinning, is a spinning process used to produce yarns by using mechanical friction to bind fibers together. It differs from other spinning methods like ring spinning or air jet spinning in the way twist is imparted to the fibers. Here is an overview of the process of friction spinning:

Fiber preparation: The fibers used in friction spinning are typically short staple fibers. They are first opened, cleaned, and blended to achieve the desired fiber characteristics and blend proportions. The fiber preparation process ensures that the fibers are loose, clean, and well-mixed.

Feeding the fiber mass: The prepared fiber mass is fed into the friction spinning machine, often through a chute or a feed roller system. The fiber mass is held together by a rotating apron or a perforated plate called the rotor plate.

Fiber trapping: As the fiber mass is fed into the machine, it enters the zone where mechanical friction is applied. The fibers are trapped between the rotor plate and a rapidly rotating, grooved rotor. The grooves on the rotor help grip and hold the fibers.

Frictional force: The rotor plate and the rotor rotate at different speeds, creating a significant difference in surface speed between the two. This speed differential generates a substantial amount of mechanical friction on the fibers, which leads to fiber entanglement and the formation of a yarn structure.

Yarn formation: As the fibers are subjected to the frictional force, they bind together and form a yarn structure. The yarn is continuously pulled out from the spinning zone, and a traveler or a thread guide helps guide the emerging yarn onto a collection package, such as a bobbin or a cone.

Yarn winding and finishing: The produced yarn is wound onto the collection package in a controlled manner. Depending on the desired characteristics, additional processes such as winding, twisting, and heat setting may be applied to enhance the yarn’s strength, evenness, and other properties.

The main advantage of friction spinning is its high production speed, as it eliminates the need for a twisting mechanism found in other spinning methods. It is also suitable for a wide range of fibers, including natural and synthetic fibers, and can handle coarser or lower-quality fibers.

However, friction spinning may produce yarns with lower strength compared to ring-spun yarns, and the yarns may exhibit more hairiness. The process is commonly used for applications where strength and finer yarn qualities are not critical, such as in industrial textiles, denim, and some knitted fabrics.

Overall, friction spinning offers a cost-effective and efficient method of producing yarns, particularly for certain types of textiles that do not require the highest yarn quality standards.

What is rotor spinning?

Rotor spinning, also known as open-end spinning or open-end rotor spinning, is a method of spinning fibers into yarn using a rotor spinning machine. It is a high-speed spinning technique that is widely used in the textile industry for producing yarns quickly and efficiently. Here’s an overview of the rotor spinning process:
Fiber feeding: The process begins with the feeding of staple fibers into the rotor spinning machine. These fibers are typically shorter in length compared to fibers used in other spinning methods. The fiber mass is typically opened, cleaned, and blended prior to feeding.
Fiber trapping: As the fibers are fed into the machine, they pass through a feed roller system and enter the spinning rotor, which is a hollow cylindrical structure with spiral grooves on its surface. The fibers are drawn into these grooves and held in place due to the centrifugal force generated by the spinning rotor.

Frictional forces: The spinning rotor rotates at a high speed, often around 60,000 to 100,000 revolutions per minute (RPM). As the fibers are held in the rotor’s grooves, they experience a combination of centrifugal force and frictional forces. These forces cause the fibers to be twisted and compacted together, forming a yarn structure.

Yarn formation: As the spinning rotor rotates, the twisted and compacted fibers are continuously drawn out from the rotor and wound onto a collecting package, such as a bobbin or a cone. The yarn formation is continuous, and the yarn is pulled out of the spinning rotor at a constant rate.

Yarn winding and finishing: The produced yarn is wound onto the collecting package in a controlled manner. Depending on the desired yarn characteristics and end-use applications, additional processes such as winding, twisting, or heat setting may be applied to enhance the yarn’s properties.

Rotor spinning offers several advantages over other spinning methods. It is a high-speed process that allows for efficient yarn production, making it suitable for large-scale manufacturing. The spinning process is relatively simple, with fewer components compared to ring spinning, which results in lower machine costs and maintenance requirements. Rotor spinning is also more suitable for processing coarser fibers and blends of fibers with varying lengths and properties.

However, rotor-spun yarns may have certain limitations compared to ring-spun yarns. Rotor-spun yarns tend to have lower strength and greater yarn hairiness. They are often used in applications where strength is not the primary concern, such as in denim fabrics, towels, and non-apparel textiles.

In summary, rotor spinning is a high-speed spinning technique that uses centrifugal force and frictional forces to form yarn from staple fibers. It is a cost-effective and efficient method of producing yarns, particularly for applications where high yarn strength is not critical.

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