GATE (TF) Textile 2017 Question Paper Solution | GATE/2017/TF/33

Question 33 (Textile Engineering & Fibre Science)

Group I consists of names of fibres. Group II gives characteristics structural features of these fibres. Match the fibre from Group I to its respective feature from Group II.

Group IGroup II
P. Cotton 1. Para and ortho-cotex
Q. Jute 2. Primary and secondary wall
R. Wool3. Fibroin \beta-sheets
S. Silk 4. Multicellular
(A)P-4, Q-1, R-2, S-3
(B)P-2, Q-4, R-1, S-3
(C)P-2, Q-3, R-4, S-1
(D)P-2, Q-4, R-3, S-1
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Frequently Asked Questions | FAQs

What are the layers of cotton?

Cotton is a natural fiber that comes from the seedpod of the cotton plant. The layers of cotton refer to the parts of the cotton fiber itself.
The outermost layer of the cotton fiber is called the cuticle, which is a waxy layer that protects the fiber from external damage. The cuticle can vary in thickness depending on the variety of cotton.
Underneath the cuticle is the primary cell wall, which is made up of cellulose and provides structure to the cotton fiber.
Next is the secondary cell wall, which is also made up of cellulose and provides additional strength and structure to the fiber.
Finally, the innermost layer is the lumen, which is a hollow area in the center of the cotton fiber.
These layers work together to give cotton its characteristic properties, such as softness, breathability, and absorbency.

What is the structural view of cotton?

The structural view of cotton refers to the physical and chemical composition of the cotton fiber. The cotton fiber is composed primarily of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate that provides strength and structure to the fiber.
Under a microscope, cotton fibers appear as elongated, twisted strands with a flattened ribbon-like shape. The fiber is made up of thousands of tiny fibrils, which are held together by hydrogen bonds. These fibrils give the cotton fiber its characteristic strength and flexibility.
In addition to cellulose, cotton fibers also contain other organic compounds such as waxes, pectins, and proteins. The exact composition of cotton fibers can vary depending on the variety of cotton and other factors such as growing conditions and processing methods.
Understanding the structural view of cotton is important for various industries that use cotton, such as textile manufacturing, agriculture, and materials science. It allows for the optimization of cotton cultivation, processing, and product development.

What is the cross sectional view of jute?

A cross-sectional view of jute would show the internal structure of the plant stem, revealing the arrangement of tissues and cells. Jute is a bast fiber plant, which means that its fibers come from the inner bark, or bast, of the stem.

In a cross-sectional view of jute, you would see several distinct layers of tissue. Starting from the outside and moving inward, these layers are:

1.Epidermis: This is the outermost layer of the stem, which provides a protective barrier against environmental factors.

2.Cortex: This layer lies beneath the epidermis and is made up of parenchyma cells. These cells store food and water for the plant.

3.Phloem: This is the layer of tissue where the jute fibers are located. The phloem is responsible for transporting sugars and other nutrients throughout the plant.

4.Cambium: This is a thin layer of tissue that produces new phloem and xylem cells, allowing the stem to grow in diameter.

5.Xylem: This layer is responsible for transporting water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant.

6.Pith: This is the central layer of the stem, which is made up of large, parenchyma cells that store food and water for the plant.

The jute fibers themselves are long and thin, with a length of up to 4 meters and a diameter of about 20 micrometers. They are located in the phloem layer of the stem and are arranged in bundles, which are separated from each other by thin layers of parenchyma cells.

What is the structure of wool?

Wool is a natural protein fiber that comes from the fleece of sheep, goats, and other animals. The structure of wool fiber is complex, and it is made up of several layers.

1.Cuticle: The outermost layer of the wool fiber is called the cuticle. It consists of overlapping scales that give wool its characteristic crimp and help to protect the fiber.

2.Cortex: The cortex is the middle layer of the wool fiber and is made up of long, twisted protein chains. It provides wool with its strength and elasticity.

3.Medulla: The medulla is the innermost layer of the wool fiber and is made up of loosely packed cells. It helps to regulate the temperature of the animal by trapping air and insulating against heat loss.

The cross-sectional shape of wool fibers can vary, but they are generally round or oval-shaped. The diameter of the fiber can also vary depending on the breed of sheep or goat from which it was harvested.
Wool fibers have a natural crimp that gives them resilience and helps them to recover from bending and folding. The crimp also creates air pockets between the fibers, providing insulation against heat and cold. The scales on the surface of the wool fiber also help to trap air, which further enhances its insulating properties.
Overall, the structure of wool makes it a highly versatile and durable fiber that is used in a wide range of applications, from clothing and textiles to carpets and upholstery.

What is the structural features of silk?

Silk is a natural protein fiber that is produced by the silkworm (Bombyx mori) to create its cocoon. The structure of silk fiber is complex, and it is made up of several distinct components.
1.Fibroin: The main component of silk fiber is fibroin, a protein that gives silk its strength and durability. Fibroin is made up of long, chain-like molecules that are held together by strong hydrogen bonds.

2.Sericin: Surrounding the fibroin fibers is a layer of sericin, a sticky protein that helps to hold the fibers together in the cocoon.

3.Crystalline Regions: Within the fibroin molecules, there are regions that are highly ordered and tightly packed, known as crystalline regions. These regions give silk its smooth, shiny appearance and make it resistant to wrinkles.

4.Amorphous Regions: In between the crystalline regions are areas that are less ordered and more flexible, known as amorphous regions. These areas give silk its elasticity and allow it to stretch without breaking.

5.Cross-sectional shape: The cross-sectional shape of silk fibers is typically triangular, which gives them a unique luster and sheen.

The combination of these structural features gives silk its distinctive properties, including its strength, durability, smooth texture, and ability to drape and flow. These qualities make silk a highly sought-after fiber for use in luxury textiles and high-end fashion.

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