1. Introduction

The fiber is most often spun in to yarn or thread and used to make a soft,Breathable Textile fibre.Cotton is a natural cellulose,seed and mono-cellular ,staple fibre.Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds.Lint Cotton is obtain by  removing the seeds in a ginning machine and lint cotton is spun in to yarn,which is woven or knitted in to a fabric.

2. Chemical Composition

The cotton polymer is linear,cellulose polymer.The repeating unit in the cotton polymer is cellobiose which consists of two glucose units.

Cotton consists of about 5000 cellobiose unit that is its DP(Degree of polymerization) is about 5000.Its a crystalline fibre have 65 to 70 % crystalline and up to 35% amorphous region.

Components Percentage (%)
Cellulose 94
Protein 1.3
Peptic Substance 1.2
Ash 1.2
Fat and Wax0.6
Organic acid, Sugar & others1.6

The Cotton Polymer: The cotton polymer is a linear, cellulose polymer. The repeating unit in the cotton polymer is cellobiose which consists of two glucose units . The cotton polymer consists of about 5000 cellobiose units that is its DP (Degree of Polymerization) is about 5000. It is very long, linear polymer about 5000 nm in length and about 0.8 nm thick.

The most important chemical grouping on the cotton polymer are the hydroxyl (-OH) groups. These are also present as methanol groups or -CH2OH. Their polarity gives rise to hydrogen bonds between the -OH groups of adjacent cotton polymers. Cotton is crystalline fibre. Its polymer system is about 65 to 70 percent crystalline and correspondingly about 30-35 amorphous.

3. Properties of Cotton
1. Physical Properties
  • Tenacity: The strength of cotton fibres is related with the good alignment of its long polymers.wet strength is more than when dry.
  • Elastic Plastic Nature: Cotton fibres are relatively inelastic in nature because of its crystalline polymer system,for that reason cotton textile wrinkle and crease readily.Hydrogen bonds holds their polymer system.
  • Hydroscopic Nature: Cotton fibre is very absorbent due to countless -OH groups,these attracts water moisture content in raw cotton is 7 to 9 % and cotton 11%.
  • Thermal Properties: Cotton fibre shows excellent resistance to thermal decomposition.It has ability to conduct heat energy. They have extremely long fibres and countless hydrogen bonds they forms.
  • Effect of light: The Visible area of  the spectrum sunlight lies between 400 and 800nm (violet to red),which is more than 340nm(uv portion of sunlight).thats why cotton is not subjected to any changes (Degredation)at all in day light.but there is  gradual loss in strength in case of prolonged exposure and the colour turns yellow,degradation period of cotton is 940 hrs.

2. Chemical Properties
  • Effect of acid: Care must be exercise when cotton comes in contact with acids(concentrated or diluted mineral acids like H2SO4 will damage cotton),this is due to acidic conditions hydrolyse the cotton polymer and glycoside 2 atoms ,which links the two glucose units to form he cellobiose unit.cellulose losses its strength as degradation proceeds.Weak organic acid like acitic acid will not damage cotton.
  • Effect of alkalies: Alkalies does not harm the cotton fibre,strong alkalies (NaOH)improves quality of cotton,this is due to the lack of attraction between the alkalies and cotton polymers.
  • Effect of bleaches: The most commonly used bleaches in cotton are sodium hypochloride (NaOCl) is a yellowish liquid bleaches at room temperature and  sodium perborate (NaBO2,3H2O) is a white powder is more effective when loundary solution exceeds 50 degree celcius.
  • Effect of micro organism: Cotton fibre can resist moths and most insects,but it can be food for fungi,do make it candidate for mildew and starchy material as a sizing promotes mildew. A widely used method of protecting cotton from attack is the application of some substances such as copper napthenate Cu(CH2)nCOO)2 and polychlorophenols that kills the micro organism.
  • Affinity for dyes: Cotton has good level of affinity of dyes(Reactive,vat and azoic dyes mostly used).
  • Resistance to perspiration: Human body may alkaline or acidis, its depends on the individuals metabolism.
  • Effect of heat: Cotton has ability to withstand moderate heat but extreme heat will cause cotton good burnt.
  • Shrinkage: Cotton fibre absorb water when it is wet and it tends to shrink as it dries.

4. Uses of Cotton Fibre
  1. The most basic use of cotton is to provide thread using cotton ginning, which they can have vast use both domestic and industrial.
  2. Cotton is used to make comfortable and breathable textile, which later on will have multiple purposes of use.
  3. By weaving cotton fiber, fabrics such as flannel, velvet, velour, and corduroy can be made by which exquisite clothing can be produced
  4. All of us in our lifetime have tried or heard about cotton candy. Guess what it is made of? Of course cotton as cotton is a good fiber corp.
  5. In the production of cosmetic and soap products, cotton is used.
  6. Pharmaceutical companies also utilize cotton in making of their product. Such as first aid kit often holds cotton.
  7. Due to its high absorbency, elasticity, purity, and hypoallergenic properties, cotton has long been a top preference in the healthcare arena.
  8. Cotton is used in the paper sector is for the creation of high excellent paper that are sought by professionals that require a difficult copy of their document to last the test of time.
  9. Although it may sound strange, cotton is used in making of Automobile-tops
  10. To make beautiful crafty cloth-bags, cotton is used so you can carry your daily essentials with you.

  1. Cotton is also used to make canvas where artists use their imagination to come up with admirable artworks.
  2. While decorating your home with beautiful looking curtains and carpets, furniture covers, cotton is of great help.
  3. The handkerchief has been around for quite a long time and is also used as a fashion item, “Gentlemen’s fashion” to be specific. Cotton makes the best looking and comfy ones.
  4. In the making of shoelaces, cotton is used.
  5. Although different alternatives are present in the apparel industry, cotton is the safest bet because it produces less waste in the production process, and most of those byproducts later can be used in other productions.
  6. The market for bedcover, sheets, pillowcases is heavily dependent upon cotton. For other home furnishings like curtains and pillows, cotton is a principal choice.
  7. Undergarments made up of cotton proves to be comfy as they are made up of breathable substances and provides greater airflow.
  8. Cotton is also used in the making of Adhesive tape to tape those party balloons to decorate your home.
  9. To make terry-cloths which are used in the process of making towels and washcloth, cotton is used.
  10. Although typewriter is almost extinct at this stage of civilization, in making of typewriter ribbons, cotton is used.

  1. Garments industry often use yarn, a long continuous interlocked fiber, in their production process.
  2. In the process of cheese making, where cheese-cloth made up of cotton is used to separate cheese custard and whey.
  3. Bandages provide the fastest solution to hold blood flow and has saved countless lives. Cotton is the primary material in the making of dressings to soak up and keep blood flow.
  4. Cotton is also used to make bookbinding to hold pages of a book together.
  5. Cotton is held as one of the key ingredients in producing certain beauty products. Mainly in two major ways, cotton is used in these regard-manufacturing items like sheet masks, makeup remover wipes, and by using cottonseed oil, which is extremely nourishing in nature.
  6. In the production of an umbrella, cotton is used to make the clothes that keep us dry from the rain.
  7. One of the specialty applications of cotton includes manufacturing flame resistant apparel. These sort of apparel are suitable for professional uses as they provide protection against potential risks attributed to high temperature and mainly flashover.

5. Sequence of Cotton and its Blends

Cotton is a cellulosic fibre and vegetable fibre.Vegetable fibre can be further divided in to 3 sub groups:

  • Seed hair
  • Bast fibres
  • Foliaceous fibre

Cotton is developed an seed and genus is Gossypium. It is found in small seed pods of a small bushy plant,so cotton is seed hair.American upland represent this variety,Gossypium, barbadense, martinum and preruvianum includes sea island,Egyptian and other cotton. Some types of cotton fibres are given below:

  1. Gossypium hirsutum. 
  2. Gossypium barbadense
  3. Gossypium arboreum
  4. Gossypium herbaceum
  5. Gossypium organic cotton.

The textile industries usually combine premium quality cotton with various threads to achieve enormous strength, smoothness, and tremendous resistance. The primary types of blended cotton yarns available with ColossusTex are:

1. Cotton and Polyester

It is the most enduring blend in the textile market. When the strength and radiance of polyester blends with cotton’s softness and breathability, works wonder for the textile industry. Cotton and polyester are blended in the proportion of 65:35 respectively to maintain the comfort, skin-friendly characteristic, and breathability. Other usual cotton-polyester blends are 67%-33%, 50%-50%, and 70%-30%.

2. Cotton and Viscose

For additional comfort and uniformity, cotton is blended with Viscose. Only Viscous is considered not suitable for use. When combined with cotton, it provides excellent comfort. These blends have a significant proportion of cotton. 85%-15% and 70%-30% are the most common cotton-viscose blended yarns

3. Cotton and Acrylic

The acrylic offers softness, warmness, and durability, whereas cotton contributes to the next level’s comfort. This is a perfect blend for a more comfortable, warm, and yet light apparel. The common blend proportions of cotton-acrylic are 75%-25%, 60%-40% and 50%-50%.

4. Cotton and Wool

The comfort, softness, and durability of the cotton fabric can be taken to an entirely new level when blended with wool. Wool gives warmth, ingest, and shape to the blend of cotton and wool. It provides warmth in cold weather without feeling bulky to the user.

5. Cotton and Nylon

Nylon is meant to add strength, smoothness and it is wrinkle resistant. Cotton when blended with nylon to give it more stretch and durability. The blend makes it suitable for warp yarns in durable fabrics with antistatic properties, which can be dyed.

Uses of Cotton Blended yarns

The blended cotton yarns are a magnificent selection in all forms: cheap, low maintenance, and sustainable. The count ranges from Ne 10 to Ne 60- single and multifold. Uses of the blended cotton yarns are as follows:

● Cotton-Polyester blends are used to make shirts, dresses, tops, sportswear, and home textiles like curtains and Bedsheets.

● Cotton-Viscose combinations are used for manufacturing towels, shirting, denim, trousers, knitwear, sarees, dhotis, and home linens.

● Cotton-acrylic blends are used in the kitchen and use pure, soft cotton balls and disposable face cloths.

● Cotton- Wool blends are used in producing knitwear, dress wear, under-garments, baby’s clothing, lightweight tops, pajamas outfits, and sheaths or blankets.

● Cotton-Nylon blends are used to make bedsheets, AC comforters, curtains, and denim.

Frequently Asked Questions | FAQs

What is scientific name of Cotton ?

The scientific name of cotton is Gossypium. It is a genus of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae. There are several species of cotton, with Gossypium hirsutum being the most widely cultivated and used species.

What is Pima Cotton ?

Pima cotton is a type of cotton known for its exceptional quality and softness. It is named after the Pima Native American tribe in the United States, who were instrumental in cultivating this cotton variety. The scientific name for Pima cotton is Gossypium barbadense.
Pima cotton has long, luxurious fibers that contribute to its superior quality. These fibers are highly prized for their strength, durability, and ability to produce smooth and lustrous fabrics. Pima cotton is often considered to be one of the finest types of cotton available and is commonly used in high-end apparel, bedding, and luxury linens.
Compared to other types of cotton, Pima cotton typically has a higher thread count, which means it can produce fabrics that are softer, more breathable, and more resistant to pilling. It is also known for its ability to absorb and retain dye well, resulting in vibrant and long-lasting colors.
Overall, Pima cotton is renowned for its exceptional quality, luxurious feel, and durability, making it a popular choice for those seeking high-quality cotton products.

Where is cotton found ?

Cotton is primarily found in regions with warm climates. It is cultivated in various countries around the world, including:

United States: Cotton is grown in the southern states, particularly in Texas, Mississippi, California, and Georgia.
China: China is one of the largest producers of cotton in the world, with major cultivation areas in Xinjiang, Shandong, and Henan provinces.
India: India is another major producer of cotton, with the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Telangana being significant cotton-growing regions.
Pakistan: Pakistan has a substantial cotton industry, with Punjab and Sindh provinces being the main cotton-growing areas.
Brazil: Brazil is a significant producer of cotton in South America, with the states of Mato Grosso, Bahia, and Goiás being major cultivation regions.
Uzbekistan: Uzbekistan is known for its high-quality cotton production, mainly in the regions of Tashkent, Fergana Valley, and Surkhandarya.
West Africa: Countries such as Mali, Burkina Faso, and Ivory Coast are among the major cotton producers in West Africa.
Australia: Cotton is grown in the northern regions of Australia, including Queensland and New South Wales.

These are just a few examples, as cotton cultivation can be found in various other countries around the world, depending on suitable climatic conditions and agricultural practices.

Why should be wear cotton clothes in summer ?

Cotton is highly recommended for summer clothing for several reasons:

Breathability: Cotton is a natural fiber that allows air to circulate freely through the fabric. This breathability helps in keeping the body cool by allowing sweat to evaporate quickly, which aids in regulating body temperature and preventing overheating.
Moisture absorption: Cotton has excellent moisture-absorbing properties. It can absorb and retain sweat from the body, keeping you dry and comfortable during hot and humid weather.
Comfort: Cotton is known for its softness and comfort against the skin. It is a lightweight and breathable fabric that allows for ease of movement and prevents the fabric from clinging to the body in sweaty conditions.
Hypoallergenic properties: Cotton is generally hypoallergenic and less likely to cause irritation or allergic reactions, making it suitable for individuals with sensitive skin.
Sun protection: While cotton itself is not a UV-protective fabric, it provides better coverage than some other lightweight summer fabrics. Wearing cotton clothing can help protect the skin from harmful sun rays to some extent.
Versatility: Cotton is a versatile fabric that can be woven into various types of clothing, including T-shirts, dresses, shorts, and skirts. It is available in different thicknesses, allowing you to choose lighter, looser weaves for maximum breathability in hot weather.

Overall, cotton’s breathable nature, moisture-absorbing properties, comfort, and versatility make it an ideal choice for summer clothing, helping you stay cool, dry, and comfortable in hot and humid conditions.

why does a lump of cotton wool shrink in water ?

A lump of cotton wool shrinks in water due to a process called “capillary action” or “wicking.” Capillary action occurs when water molecules are drawn into narrow spaces or gaps between the fibers of the cotton.
Cotton fibers have small spaces or gaps between them, known as capillaries. When the lump of cotton wool comes into contact with water, the water molecules are attracted to the cotton fibers through intermolecular forces, such as hydrogen bonding.
As the water molecules are drawn into the capillaries, they create a tension within the cotton fibers. This tension causes the fibers to contract and pull closer together, resulting in the shrinkage of the cotton wool.
Capillary action is the same principle that allows water to move upward in a narrow tube or to be absorbed by a paper towel. The water molecules are able to “climb” or move against the force of gravity due to the adhesive and cohesive properties of water and the capillary spaces within the material.
In the case of cotton wool, the shrinkage occurs as the water is drawn into the capillary spaces between the fibers, causing them to contract and the overall lump of cotton to shrink in size.

why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in mumbai ?

The cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay) for several reasons:

Geographical Advantage: Mumbai is located in close proximity to major cotton-growing regions such as Gujarat and Maharashtra, which are known for their cotton production. This proximity to the source of raw cotton ensured a steady and accessible supply of raw material for the textile mills.
Port Access: Mumbai has a natural harbor and a well-developed port infrastructure. This allowed for the easy import and export of raw materials, machinery, and finished goods, facilitating the growth of the cotton textile industry. The port served as a gateway for the transportation of cotton from other parts of India and abroad, making it a favorable location for textile mills.
Skilled Labor: Mumbai has historically been a center of trade and commerce, attracting a large population of skilled laborers. The availability of skilled workers, including weavers, dyers, spinners, and other textile-related artisans, provided the necessary human resources for the establishment and growth of textile mills in the city.
Entrepreneurship and Capital: Mumbai has long been a hub for business and entrepreneurship in India. The city attracted industrialists and entrepreneurs who invested capital in setting up cotton textile mills. The availability of financial institutions and markets in Mumbai facilitated the flow of capital needed for the expansion of the industry.
Market Demand: Mumbai, as a populous city and a center of trade, provided a substantial domestic market for textile products. The growing demand for cotton textiles, both within India and for export, fueled the expansion of textile mills in Mumbai.
Government Policies: The Indian government implemented favorable policies and incentives to promote industrial growth, including the textile sector. This included tax benefits, infrastructure development, and other supportive measures that encouraged the establishment and expansion of textile mills in Mumbai.

These factors, combined with favorable natural resources, skilled labor, access to markets, and supportive policies, led to the rapid expansion of the cotton textile industry in Mumbai, making it a prominent center for textile manufacturing in India.

Cotton Uses | Cotton Crop |