1. Introduction

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, hide and fur clothing from bison, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids. Wool consists of protein together with a small percentage of lipids.Rabbit and alpacas are also used for producing high quality wool. Wool fibre is composed of protein known as keratin.

2. Chemical Composition
  • Keratin                    33%
  • Dirt                            26%
  • Suint                         28%
  • Fat                              12%
  • Mineral matter     1%
3. Physical characteristics

Appearance of wool depend on the breed of sheep. The wool fibre is wavy, crimpy and has scale on its surface.

4. Physical Properties
  • Strength-
  1. Wool is the weakest of the natural textile fibres.
  2. Wool fibre is strengthened by the used of ply yarns.
  3. A hard twisted two ply yarn may be regarded as an assurance of  durability.
  4. Tightly twisted single yarns also make a strong fabric.
  • Elasticity-The wool fibre may be stretched from 25-30 % of its natural length,this characteristics reduces the danger of tearing under tension.
  • Drapability-The wool fibre has excellent draping quality due to its pliability,elasticity and resiliency.
  • Effect of heat-The wool fibre becomes harsh at 100 degree celcius and its have plastic quality which helps to have shape at melting temperature.
  • Effect of light-The wool fibre is weekend by prolonged exposure to sunlight.

5. Chemical Properties
  • Reaction to alkali– The wool fibre is quickly damaged by strong alakalies.
  • Reaction to acids– The wool fibre is damaged by hot sulphuric acids.
  • Affinity for dyes– The wool fibre has high affinity for certain types of dyes, i.e Acid dyes,Basic dyes.
  • Resistance to perspirations– The wool fibre is weakened by alkali perspiration that will cause discoloration.

(Our faculty team keeps uploading latest study material as per current GATE exam. Please keep visiting our website for latest updates.)